Sunflower – is an annual plant, from 1 to 3 m high, depending on the variety, growing conditions and soil. Sunflowers are a plant of a dry and warm climate, as well as their vegetation is long, so not all varieties are suitable for growing grains and oil in Lithuania. Mostly in Lithuania it is sown as a crop alone or in mixtures, although there are attempts to grow seeds as well.
When sowing grains, attention should be paid to the variety, because there are three subspecies – large-seeded, oil-seeded and intermediate. The structure and even oiliness of the seeds of these varieties differ.
When growing tall varieties for seeds, a large mass of stems is obtained. These stalks are collected, and the ash obtained by burning them is used for the production of potash or as fertilizer.
Use: for oil and food (seeds). Oil pomace is used for feed. In some places, high varieties are grown for animal feed and silage is produced. The lower varieties are used as a cover crop. Sunflower is also rich in honey.
Cultivation features: grows various structures in good soils, but poor in dry and light soils.
Although the plant grows quite tall, its young seedlings do not compete well with weeds, so it is recommended to choose weed-free soils or to cultivate the field well before sowing, preserving moisture. It is sown when the soil temperature reaches at least 10 degrees. Technological requirements for sowing (for growing oil) sow the seeds at the same depth as possible. When growing for seeds, it is recommended to keep beehives near the fields, because the plant is cross-pollinated and requires the help of insects to form the seeds.